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Reduction in Relative Clauses

Reduction of Relative Clauses

 

  1. Aktif Yapılar�� (Active Structure)

Aktive yapılarda who, which, that ve yardımcı filler (am, is, have, was gibi) atılır. Fill gerund (verb+ing) halinde kalır. Anlamda hiçbir değişiklik olmaz.

 

v      Students who want to join the club must apply to the English teacher[i1] .

v      Students who wanting to join the club must apply to the English teacher[i2] .

 

v      Do you know the man who is talking on the TV?[i3] 

v      Do you know the man who is talking on the TV?[i4] 

 

v      The car struck the people who were waiting at the bus stop[i5] .

v      The car struck the people who were waiting at the bus stop[i6] .

 

Geçmiş zaman (Simple Past) olarak çekimlenen fiiller de gerund (verb+ing)� olurlar.

v      The students who came to class late missed the quiz[i7] .

v      The students who came coming to class late missed the quiz[i8] .

 

v      I passed the exam, which made all my family happy[i9] .

v      I passed the exam, which made making all my family happy[i10] .

 


  1. Pasive Yapılar�� (Passive Structure)

Pasive yapılarda who, which, that ve yardımcı filler (am, is, have,was gibi) atılır. Fill verb 3 halinde kalır. Anlamda hiçbir değişiklik olmaz.

 

v      The car which was used in the bank robbery has been found by the police[i11] .

v      The car which was used in the bank robbery has been found by the police[i12] .

 

v      Students who are punished are generally boys[i13] .

v      Students who are punished are generally boys[i14] .

 

 

v      The method that has been used in the project was excellent[i15] .

v      The method that has been used in the project was excellent[i16] .

 

v      It is unsafe to enter a building which was damaged by the earthquake[i17] .

v      It is unsafe to enter a building which was damaged by the earthquake[i18] .

 


 

  1. To-infinitive Yapılar
  1. the first, the second, the third, � , the last, the next
  2. the only
  3. the superlative yapı (the best, the most populated,�)
  4. Modal yapılar (may, can, must,�)

Bu yapıları Relative Clause ile kullanıldığında who, which, that ve yardımcı filler (am, is, have,was gibi) atılır. Aktive cümlelerde fill to-infinitive halini ve pasive cümlelerde ise to be verb3 halini alır. Anlamda hiçbir değişiklik olmaz.

 

Aktive

       He is the first person who wrote about that problem[i19] .

       He is the first person who wrote to write about that problem[i20] .

 

       Yesterday, I was the last person who left the school[i21] .

       Yesterday, I was the last person who left to leave the school[i22] .

 

       Tansu Çiller is the only woman who became Prime Minister[i23] .

       Tansu Çiller is the only woman who became to become Prime Minister[i24] .

 

       He is the oldest footballer that plays in Turkish League[i25] .

       He is the oldest footballer that plays to play in Turkish League[i26] 

 

       I have a lot of homework that I must do[i27] .

       I have a lot of homework that I must to do[i28] .

 

       We don�t have a real friend whom we can trust[i29] .

       We don�t have a real friend whom we can to trust[i30] .

Pasive

 

       This is the largest ship which was made last year[i31] .

       This is the largest ship to be made last year[i32] .

 

       She is a person who can be trusted[i33] 

       She is a person to be trusted[i34] 

 

       Atatürk was the first president that was inaugurated[i35] .

       Atatürk was the first president to be inaugurated[i36] .

 


 

  1. To be + Sıfat, Edat, İsim (Adjective / Preposition / Noun)

To be (am, is, are, was, were, been) den sonra bir sıfat geliyorsa who, which, that ve to be filleri atılır: Anlamda hiçbir değişiklik olmaz.

 

v      The girl who is happy with the present is playing joyfully[i37] .

v      The girl who is happy with the present is playing joyfully[i38] .

 

v      The person who was responsible for the accident was put in jail[i39] .

v      The person who was responsible for the accident was put in jail[i40] .

 

v      The Tv program which has been boring for some time won�t be broadcast anymore[i41] .

v      The Tv program which has been boring for some time won�t be broadcast anymore[i42] 

 

�To be (am, is, are, was, were, been) den sonra bir edat (in, at, on) geliyorsa who, which, that ve to be filleri atılır:

 

v      The boy who was in the car looked suspicious to me[i43] .

v      The boy who was in the car looked suspicious to me[i44] .

 

To be (am, is, are, was, were, been) den sonra bir isim geliyorsa who, which, that ve to be filleri atılır:

v      Marmaris, which is a popular tourist center, has many places to visit[i45] .

v      Marmaris, which is a popular tourist center, has many places to visit[i46] .

 

v      Doctor James, who is the head of eye department, operated on my father�s eye[i47] .

v      Doctor James, who is the head of eye department, operated on my father�s eye[i48] .

 


 

  1. Pasif + Süreklilik (Passive + Continuous Tense)

 

       The song which is being played now is my favorite one[i49] .

       The song which is being played now is my favorite one[i50] .

 

       The patient who is being operated on is very ill[i51] .

       The patient who is being operated on is very ill[i52] .

 

  1. Zaman (Tense) Farkı (a Perfect Participal)

Relative clause yapısının fiili ile ana fiil arasındaki zaman farkı varsa active eylemler için having +verb3passive eylemler için having been + verb3 kullanılabilir.

v      The students who failed the Math 101 course have to take it again next term[A53] .

Ana fiil���������� : has to take (present)

Relative C. Filli�� : failed (S.past)

Zaman farkını belirtmek için şu şekilde yapılır:

v      The students having failed the Math 101 course has to take it again next term[A54] .

 

v      Murat, who had been fired, looked for another job for five months[A55] .

v      Murat, having been fired, looked for another job for five months[A56] 

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